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Only in Puerto Vallarta.
As the sun sets, enter into the magical and ancient land of Rhythms of the Night where mermaids greet you by starlight and trees come to life. This mesmerizing performance will captivate your heart and leave you spellbound.
Walk along the torch-lit paths while haunting flutes and the rhythmic drumbeat summon you to a pyramid nestled among the towering palms. In a mystical amphitheater under the star-studded sky, witness Mexico’s mythological past come to life through contemporary dance and music in this spectacular, 50-minute performance that received raving reviews from the New York Times as "An unforgettable evening under the stars."
The best exercises for building and maintaining strong bones are weight-bearing and muscle-strengthening activities.
Weight-bearing exercises are any activity performed standing up, such as walking, running and dancing. When your feet and legs support your weight, your bones have to work harder, making them stronger.
Muscle-strengthening exercises are any activity that requires your muscles to work harder than normal, like lifting weights. This type of resistance exercise works the tendons that attach muscle to bone, which in turn boosts bone strength.
It must be stressed that all forms of physical activity will help to keep your bones fit for purpose and reduce the risk of falling. Good balance, co-ordination and stamina, as well as the confidence that comes from being regularly active, will all reduce your chance of a fall.
Check out the government’s physical activity recommendations for early childhood, young people, adults and older adults.
Physical activity is only one of the building blocks for healthy bones – the others being a healthy balanced diet and avoiding certain risk factors.
Key bone-building years
The key bone-building years are those up to our mid-20s, when the skeleton is growing. This is a critical period during which we have the opportunity to build as much bone as possible to last us for a lifetime.
The gains achieved during youth put the skeleton in a better position to withstand the bone loss that occurs with age. After about 35, bone loss gradually increases as part of the natural ageing process.
However, regular physical activity, including bone-friendly exercises, will help keep bones strong and slow the rate of bone loss, even in people with osteoporosis. Leading an active lifestyle can halve your risk of breaking a bone, particularly in your hip, according to Age UK.
High impact exercises
For bone strength, long exercise sessions are not always necessary and brief bouts of high impact exercise are sufficient. High impact exercises, which are anything involving running or jumping, provide a jolt to the skeleton, including the hips and spine.
“A few jolts are enough to stimulate the bone-strengthening process in the body,” says Sarah Leyland of the National Osteoporisis Society. For example, running up 10 steps provides 10 jolts on the way up and 10 jolts on the way down. Do this five times a day and you have clocked up 100 jolts, which is likely to produce a positive effect on bone strength.
You can also target specific bones. Research found the bones in the serving arm of tennis pros were stronger than in their non-serving arm. So make sure you get the balance right!
“Beyond our 30s, physical activity is unlikely to strengthen bones but it will help reduce the rate of natural bone loss,” says Leyland.
High impact and bending exercises while lifting heavy loads place a lot of stress on the bones in the spine and are not recommended for people at risk of a fracture.
However, low impact activities, such as walking and step machines may help slow the rate of bone loss and improve your balance and muscle strength, which will help reduce your risk of falling.
Find out what activities and exercises are good for your bones depending on your age, level of fitness and bone strength.
Childhood, adolescence and early adulthood up to mid-20s, when the skeleton is growing, are the time for building strong bones.
Young people aged five to 18 are advised to do vigorous intensity activities that strengthen muscle and bones, on at least three days a week.
Examples of muscle and bone-strengthening activities:
Children and young adults:
Bone loss years
To reduce the rate of natural bone loss that occurs from age 35 onwards, aim to do muscle-strengthening activities at least two days a week.
See the ‘children and young adults’ section above for examples of relevant activities.
Examples of other suitable activities for adults include:
brisk walking, including Nordic walking
carrying or moving heavy loads such as groceries
exercising with resistance bands
heavy gardening, such as digging and shovelling
Try Strength and Flex, a five-week exercise plan for beginners to improve your strength and flexibility.
People with osteoporosis
If you have osteoporosis or fragile bones, regular physical activity can help to keep bones strong and reduce the risk of a fracture in the future.
Depending on your risk of fracture, you may need to avoid some types of high impact exercises. However, if you are otherwise fit and healthy and already enjoy regular exercise then you should be able to continue.
Check out the exercise resources on the National Osteoporosis Society website. Speak to your GP and ask if there is an exercise referral scheme in your area that caters for people with osteroporosis.
The shoulder joint is the body's most mobile joint. It can turn in many directions. But, this advantage also makes the shoulder an easy joint to dislocate.
A partial dislocation (subluxation) means the head of the upper arm bone (humerus) is partially out of the socket (glenoid). A complete dislocation means it is all the way out of the socket. Both partial and complete dislocation cause pain and unsteadiness in the shoulder.
Symptoms to look for include:
Sometimes dislocation may tear ligaments or tendons in the shoulder or damage nerves.
The shoulder joint can dislocate forward, backward, or downward. A common type of shoulder dislocation is when the shoulder slips forward (anterior instability). This means the upper arm bone moved forward and down out of its joint. It may happen when the arm is put in a throwing position.
The muscles may have spasms from the disruption, and this can make it hurt more. When the shoulder dislocates time and again, there is shoulder instability.
The doctor will examine the shoulder and may order an X-ray. It is important that the doctor know how the dislocation happened and whether the shoulder had ever been dislocated before.
Your rotator cuff is located in your shoulder area. It is made of muscles and tendons. It helps your shoulder to move and stay stable.
Problems with the rotator cuff are common. They include tendinitis, bursitis, and injuries such as tears.
Rotator cuff tendons can become inflamed from frequent use or aging. Sometimes they are injured from a fall on an outstretched hand.
Sports or jobs with repeated overhead motion can also damage the rotator cuff. Aging causes tendons to wear down, which can lead to a tear.
Some tears are not painful, but others can be very painful. Treatment for a torn rotator cuff depends on age, health, how severe the injury is, and how long you've had the torn rotator cuff.
Treatment for torn rotator cuff includes:
Oats are among the healthiest grains on earth.
They're a gluten-free whole grain and a great source of important vitamins, minerals, fiber and antioxidants.
Studies show that oats and oatmeal have many health benefits.
These include weight loss, lower blood sugar levels and a reduced risk of heart disease.
Here are 9 evidence-based health benefits of eating oats and oatmeal.
What Are Oats and Oatmeal?
Oats are a whole-grain food, known scientifically as Avena sativa.
Oat groats, the most intact and whole form of oats, take a long time to cook. For this reason, most people prefer rolled, crushed or steel-cut oats.
Instant (quick) oats are the most highly processed variety. While they take the shortest time to cook, the texture may be mushy.
Oats are commonly eaten for breakfast as oatmeal, which is made by boiling oats in water or milk. Oatmeal is often referred to as porridge.
They're also often included in muffins, granola bars, cookies and other baked goods.
Oats are a whole grain that is commonly eaten for breakfast as oatmeal (porridge).
Oats Are Incredibly Nutritious
The nutrient composition of oats is well-balanced.
They are a good source of carbs and fiber, including the powerful fiber beta-glucan (1, 2, 3).
They also contain more protein and fat than most grains (4).
Oats are loaded with important vitamins, minerals and antioxidant plant compounds. Half a cup (78 grams) of dry oats contains (5):
This means that oats are among the most nutrient-dense foods you can eat.
Oats are rich in carbs and fiber, but also higher in protein and fat than most other grains. They are very high in many vitamins and minerals.
Whole Oats Are Rich in Antioxidants, Including Avenanthramides
Whole oats are high in antioxidants and beneficial plant compounds called polyphenols. Most notable is a unique group of antioxidants called avenanthramides, which are almost solely found in oats (6).
Avenanthramides may help lower blood pressure levels by increasing the production of nitric oxide. This gas molecule helps dilate blood vessels and leads to better blood flow (7, 8, 9).
In addition, avenanthramides have anti-inflammatory and anti-itching effects (9).
Ferulic acid is also found in large amounts in oats. This is another antioxidant (10).
Oats contain many powerful antioxidants, including avenanthramides. These compounds may help reduce blood pressure and provide other benefits.
Oats Contain a Powerful Soluble Fiber Called Beta-Glucan
Oats contain large amounts of beta-glucan, a type of soluble fiber.
Beta-glucan partially dissolves in water and forms a thick, gel-like solution in the gut.
The health benefits of beta-glucan fiber include:
Oats are high in the soluble fiber beta-glucan, which has numerous benefits. It helps reduce cholesterol and blood sugar levels, promotes healthy gut bacteria and increases feelings of fullness.
It's no secret that our bodies change as we age. Some changes are obvious, while others are more subtle.
Many people age comfortably and remain active, alert, and vibrant throughout their lives. Their physiologic age may be quite younger than their chronological age.
Others may experience the effects of osteoporosis and osteoarthritis, which can gradually diminish their abilities to participate fully in activities.
Knowing what to expect and taking steps to counterbalance the effects of aging can help you maintain a young spirit and an independent life. A healthy diet, regular exercise program, and positive attitude can help delay the onset and slow the progression of many age-related changes.
The Effects of Aging
Throughout life, bones constantly change through a process of absorption and formation called "remodeling." As we age, the balance between bone absorption and bone formation changes, resulting in a loss of bone tissue.
Counteracting the Effects of Aging
Many of the changes in our musculoskeletal system result more from disuse than from simple aging. Less than 10 percent of Americans participate in regular exercise, and the most sedentary group is older than 50 years of age.
Stretching is an excellent way to help maintain joint flexibility. Weight training can increase muscle mass and strength, enabling people to continue their daily routine activities without maximal exertion. Even moderate amounts of physical activity can reduce your risk of developing high blood pressure, heart disease, and some forms of cancer.
Long-term regular exercises may slow the loss of muscle mass and prevent age-associated increases in body fat. Exercise also helps maintain the body's response time, as well as its ability to deliver and use oxygen efficiently. Just 30 minutes of moderate activity, incorporated into your daily routine, can provide health benefits.
An exercise program doesn't have to be strenuous to be effective. Walking, square dancing, swimming, and bicycling are all recommended activities for maintaining fitness as we age.
The 30 minutes of moderate activity can be broken up into shorter periods. For example, you might spend 15 minutes working in the garden in the morning and 15 minutes walking in the afternoon. It all adds up.
But if you have never attempted an exercise program before, be sure to see your doctor before starting one now.
Calcium is an essential mineral needed for bone health and just as important as any other product in your age-defying beauty regimen. Even though our bodies need calcium, we don’t produce the mineral. We get it from the foods we eat every day. Unfortunately, most people don’t get enough calcium.
The amount of calcium you require depends on your age and sex. Here is a breakdown of what you need on a daily basis.
To get the recommended amount of calcium, it is a good idea to make sure foods high in calcium are part of your diet. These include low-fat dairy products such as low-fat milk, yogurt, and cheeses, as well as calcium-fortified orange juice. A list of calcium sources can be found below.
SOURCES OF CALCIUM
Milk (skim), 8oz. 306mg Milk (low-fat, 1%), 8 oz. 290mg Milk (whole), 8 oz. 276mg Low-fat chocolate milk, 8 oz. 273mg
Nonfat yogurt, 8oz. 452mg Low-fat yogurt, 8 oz. 415mg Frozen yogurt, ½ cup 103mg
Goat cheese (hard) 1 oz. 254mg Part skim mozzarella, 1 oz. 207mg Cheddar cheese, 1 oz. 204mg Low-fat cottage cheese, 1 cup 15mg Feta cheese, 1 oz. 140mg
Sardines with bones, 3 oz. 325mg Canned salmon with bones, 3 oz. 181mg
Collards (frozen, chopped), 1 cup 357mg Turnip greens (cooked, frozen), 1 cup 249mg Okra (cooked), 1 cup 176mg Spinach (cooked, frozen), 1 cup 291mg
Vegetable lasagna, 1 piece 450mg Calcium fortified orange juice, 1 cup 300mg Cheese pizza, 2 slices 222mg Chocolate pudding, ½ cup 159mg Vanilla ice cream, ½ cup 85mg Almonds, ½ cup 162mg Soybeans (edamame), ½ cup 197mg Tofu, ¼ block 163mg Chickpeas, 1 cup 105mg Egg, 1 whole (cooked) 55mg
If it is difficult for you to get enough calcium through diet, it may make sense for you to take a supplement, such as a Citracal product.
THE ROLE OF VITAMIN D
In addition to calcium, vitamin D is needed for bone health. Your body also requires it to absorb calcium. Women and men up to 70 years of age need around 600 IU daily. After age 70, this increases to 800 IU per day.‡
There are three ways to get vitamin D: sunlight, food, and supplements. Because of the risk of skin cancer and the use of sunscreen, which limits your body’s ability to make the vitamin, most people rely on food and supplements to get their vitamin D. And since it is difficult getting all your vitamin D from food alone, many people may need to take supplements
WHAT IF I'M NOT GETTING ENOUGH CALCIUM OR VITAMIN D?
Not getting enough calcium can lead to a disease called osteoporosis. This is a condition where your bones become fragile and break easily. The most common bones affected include the hip, backbone (spine), and wrist. Many people don’t realize they have osteoporosis until after they break a bone, which means that their bones had been losing strength for years.
WHO IS AT RISK FOR OSTEOPOROSIS?
Approximately ten million Americans have osteoporosis. The disease mostly affects White and Asian women, but others are vulnerable as well, including men. Women with the greatest risk include those who:
When visiting Puerto Vallarta, make sure to ask your hotel if they carry out turtle releases. This is an activity for the whole family; it is undoubtedly a very emotional moment when you hold a baby turtle in your hand, and you give it a name and before laying it down on the sand; and you watch it move toward the sea at dusk. It will use its fins to move until the waves pull it into the ocean. Then it will start swimming, with the setting sun as beacon. The adventure of its life has begun.
There are eight species of sea turtles in the world, and six of them live in Mexico. Out of those, four species visit us in Puerto Vallarta: Olive Ridley turtle, Green turtle, Leatherback turtle and Hawksbill turtle. The Olive Ridley is the most numerous and the one that visits Puerto Vallarta beaches the most in this season to lay their eggs.
The official turtle arrival season goes from August to December, but arrivals have been recorded as early as July. Male turtles spend their whole life in the ocean, only females return to their beach of birth to lay their eggs, about 100 of them each time.
All sea turtle species are threatened by extinction, to some extent. This is why it is important to make efforts to ensure their permanence in the world. In Puerto Vallarta, official organisms and non-governmental organizations have made efforts for preservation and protection of sea turtles, and created turtle camps along the coast.
Hotels have joined such efforts and many have established nesting corrals on their beaches, where rescued nests are protected to ensure successful hatching of the eggs. The incubation process takes approximately two months.
When baby turtles hatch, they are released at sunset to give them a better chance of survival. At night they won’t be visible to predators.
To be able to witness the arrival of a mother turtle at the beach or to accompany the hatchlings on their way to the ocean is really a privilege to any human being. Once they have been released, sea turtles will spend at least eight years in the ocean before returning to the very beach where they were born. This is why we invite you to participate in the incredible experience of releasing a baby sea turtle.
For young athletes, sports activities are more than play. Participation in athletics improves physical fitness, coordination, and self-discipline, and gives children valuable opportunities to learn teamwork.
Because young athletes are still growing, they are at a greater risk for injury than adults. The consequences of overdoing a sport can include injuries that impair growth, and may lead to long-term health problems.
Fortunately, many youth sports injuries can be prevented. Some of the more effective ways to prevent these injuries include age-specific coaching, appropriate physical conditioning, and proper use of equipment.
In addition, coaches and parents can prevent injuries by fostering an atmosphere of healthy competition that emphasizes confidence, cooperation, and a positive self-image, rather than just winning.
Differences Between Child and Adult Athletes
Children Are Still Growing
The young athlete is not a smaller version of an adult. Children's bones, muscles, tendons, and ligaments are still growing, making them more susceptible to injury. In addition, there are significant differences in coordination, strength, and stamina between children and adults.
Children Vary in Size and Maturity
Young athletes of the same age can differ greatly in size and physical maturity. Grade school students are less likely to experience severe injuries during athletic activities because they are smaller and slower than older athletes. High school athletes, however, are bigger, faster, stronger, and capable of delivering tremendous forces in contact sports.
Children Can Injure Growth Plates
Growth plates are the areas of developing cartilage at the ends of long bones where bone growth occurs in children. The growth plates are weaker than the nearby ligaments and tendons. A twisted ankle that might result in a sprain in an adult, could result in a more serious growth plate fracture in a young athlete. Growth plate injuries have the potential to disrupt the normal growth of bone.
Common Youth Sports Injuries
Acute sports injuries are caused by a sudden trauma, such as a twist, fall, or collision. Common acute injuries include broken bones, sprains (ligament injuries), strains (muscle and tendon injuries), and cuts or bruises.
Most acute injuries should be evaluated by a doctor. Prompt first aid treatment should be provided by coaches and parents when the injury occurs. This usually consists of the RICE method: rest, applying ice, wrapping with elastic bandages (compression), and elevating the injured arm, hand, leg, or foot. This usually limits discomfort and reduces healing time. Proper first aid will minimize swelling and help the doctor establish an accurate diagnosis.
Overuse injuries occur gradually over time, when an athletic activity is repeated so often, parts of the body do not have enough time to heal between playing. Examples of overuse injuries include throwing injuries in the elbow, Achilles tendinitis, and shin splints.
Coaches may have more difficulty spotting less severe problems, however, because the pain is low grade and the athlete often ignores it. Repeat injuries may turn into overuse conditions, which can put the athlete on the sidelines for the rest of the season.
To keep athletes in the game long-term, overuse injuries need to be diagnosed and treated by a physician as soon as possible. Parents and coaches should be aware of the more common signs of overuse injury.
In the growing athlete's musculoskeletal system, pain from repetitive motion may appear somewhere besides the actual site of the injury. For instance, a knee ache in a child or adolescent may actually be pain caused by an injury to the hip.
Whether an injury is acute or due to overuse, a child who develops a symptom that persists or that affects his or her athletic performance should be examined by a doctor. A child should never be allowed to "work through the pain."
Strategies for Preventing Youth Sports Injuries
There are several strategies that coaches, parents, and athletes can follow to help prevent sports injuries. Most importantly, athletes should:
Young athletes need proper training for sports. They should be encouraged to train for the sport rather than expecting the sport itself to get them in shape.
Young athletes also should follow a regular conditioning program (in conjunction with their coach) with incorporated exercises designed specifically for their chosen sport. In addition, a well-structured, closely supervised weight-training regimen may modestly help youngsters prepare for athletic activities.
STOP Sports Injuries
Many sports injuries in young athletes — particularly elbow and knee injuries — are caused by excessive, repetitive stress on immature muscle-bone units. Doctors are seeing an increase in overuse injuries because many young athletes are focusing on just one sport and are training year-round. The American Academy of Orthopaedic Surgeons has partnered with STOP Sports Injuries to help educate parents, coaches, and athletes about how to prevent overuse injuries.
Specific tips to prevent overuse injuries include:
Atmosphere of Healthy Competition
Coaches and parents are also responsible for creating an atmosphere that promotes teamwork and sportsmanship.
Youth sports should always be fun. The "win at all costs" attitude of many parents, coaches, professional athletes and peers can lead to injuries. A young athlete striving to meet the unrealistic expectations of others may ignore warning signs of injury and continue to play with pain.
Young athletes must learn to deal with success and defeat in order to place events in a proper perspective. The promotion of the "win at all costs" ethic can have both short-term and long-term detrimental effects on impressionable young athletes.
The most important nutrients for people with osteoporosis are calcium and vitamin D.
Calcium is a key building block for your bones. Vitamin D helps your body to absorb calcium.
How much should you get? It depends, in part, on your age and gender.
For vitamin D:
In 2010, there were roughly 10.4 million patient visits to doctors' offices because of common knee injuries such as fractures, dislocations, sprains, and ligament tears. Knee injury is one of the most common reasons people see their doctors.
Your knee is a complex joint with many components, making it vulnerable to a variety of injuries. Many knee injuries can be successfully treated with simple measures, such as bracing and rehabilitation exercises. Other injuries may require surgery to correct.
Pain and swelling are the most common signs of knee injury. In addition, your knee may catch or lock up. Many knee injuries cause instability — the feeling that your knee is giving way.
The most common bone broken around the knee is the patella. The ends of the femur and tibia where they meet to form the knee joint can also be fractured. Many fractures around the knee are caused by high energy trauma, such as falls from significant heights and motor vehicle collisions.
A dislocation occurs when the bones of the knee are out of place, either completely or partially. For example, the femur and tibia can be forced out of alignment, and the patella can also slip out of place. Dislocations can be caused by an abnormality in the structure of a person's knee. In people who have normal knee structure, dislocations are most often caused by high energy trauma, such as falls, motor vehicle crashes, and sports-related contact.
Anterior Cruciate Ligament (ACL) Injuries
The anterior cruciate ligament is often injured during sports activities. Athletes who participate in high demand sports like soccer, football, and basketball are more likely to injure their anterior cruciate ligaments. Changing direction rapidly or landing from a jump incorrectly can tear the ACL. About half of all injuries to the anterior cruciate ligament occur along with damage to other structures in the knee, such as articular cartilage, meniscus, or other ligaments.
The posterior cruciate ligament is often injured from a blow to the front of the knee while the knee is bent. This often occurs in motor vehicle crashes and sports-related contact. Posterior cruciate ligament tears tend to be partial tears with the potential to heal on their own.
Injuries to the collateral ligaments are usually caused by a force that pushes the knee sideways. These are often contact injuries. Injuries to the MCL are usually caused by a direct blow to the outside of the knee, and are often sports-related. Blows to the inside of the knee that push the knee outwards may injure the lateral collateral ligament. Lateral collateral ligament tears occur less frequently than other knee injuries.
Sudden meniscal tears often happen during sports. Tears in the meniscus can occur when twisting, cutting, pivoting, or being tackled. Meniscal tears may also occur as a result of arthritis or aging. Just an awkward twist when getting up from a chair may be enough to cause a tear, if the menisci have weakened with age.
The quadriceps and patellar tendons can be stretched and torn. Although anyone can injure these tendons, tears are more common among middle-aged people who play running or jumping sports. Falls, direct force to the front of the knee, and landing awkwardly from a jump are common causes of knee tendon injuries.
Guidelines for Preventing Falls
Falls can happen anytime and anywhere to people of any age. However, as people get older, the number of falls and the severity of injury resulting from falls increases. According to the Centers for Disease Control and Prevention (CDC), falls are the leading cause of fatal and nonfatal injuries in people age 65 and older. Common injuries due to falls are head injuries, shoulder and forearm fractures, spine fractures, pelvic fractures, and hip fractures.
There is a pattern to falls among the elderly: The fear of falling, then the injury, followed by hospitalization, decreased independence and mobility, and often relocation to a nursing or residential institution.
<p">Falls can be a major life-changing event that robs the elderly of their independence.
Fortunately, many falls can be prevented with healthy lifestyle choices and safety modifications in the home.
Facts about Falls and the Elderly
Arthritis is inflammation of one or more of your joints. It can cause pain and stiffness in any joint in the body, and is common in the small joints of the foot and ankle.
There are more than 100 forms of arthritis, many of which affect the foot and ankle. All types can make it difficult to walk and perform activities you enjoy.
Although there is no cure for arthritis, there are many treatment options available to slow the progress of the disease and relieve symptoms. With proper treatment, many people with arthritis are able to manage their pain, remain active, and lead fulfilling lives.
The symptoms of arthritis vary depending on which joint is affected. In many cases, an arthritic joint will be painful and inflamed. Generally, the pain develops gradually over time, although sudden onset is also possible. There can be other symptoms, as well, including:
The major types of arthritis that affect the foot and ankle are osteoarthritis, rheumatoid arthritis, and posttraumatic arthritis.
Osteoarthritis, also known as degenerative or "wear-and-tear" arthritis, is a common problem for many people after they reach middle age, but it may occur in younger people, too.
In osteoarthritis, the cartilage in the joint gradually wears away. As the cartilage wears away, it becomes frayed and rough, and the protective space between the bones decreases. This can result in bone rubbing on bone, and produce painful osteophytes (bone spurs).
In addition to age, other risk factors for osteoarthritis include obesity and family history of the disease.
Osteoarthritis develops slowly, causing pain and stiffness that worsen over time.
The major types of arthritis that affect the foot and ankle are osteoarthritis, rheumatoid arthritis, and posttraumatic arthritis.
Rheumatoid arthritis is a chronic disease that can affect multiple joints throughout the body, and often starts in the foot and ankle. It is symmetrical, meaning that it usually affects the same joint on both sides of the body.
Rheumatoid arthritis is an autoimmune disease. This means that the immune system attacks its own tissues. In rheumatoid arthritis, immune cells attack the synovium covering the joint, causing it to swell. Over time, the synovium invades and damages the bone and cartilage, as well as ligaments and tendons, and may cause serious joint deformity and disability.
The exact cause of rheumatoid arthritis is not known. Although it is not an inherited disease, researchers believe that some people have genes that make them more susceptible. There is usually a "trigger," such as an infection or environmental factor, which activates the genes. When the body is exposed to this trigger, the immune system begins to produce substances that attack the joints.
Posttraumatic arthritis can develop after an injury to the foot or ankle. Dislocations and fractures—particularly those that damage the joint surface—are the most common injuries that lead to posttraumatic arthritis. Like osteoarthritis, posttraumatic arthritis causes the cartilage between the joints to wear away. It can develop many years after the initial injury.
An injured joint is about seven times more likely than an uninjured joint to become arthritic, even if the injury is properly treated. In fact, following an injury, your body may actually secrete hormones that stimulate the death of your cartilage cells.
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